Vitamin d

Metabolic regulation of
calcium and phosphorus

Major function of vitamin D is to regulate the level of calcium and phosphorus in blood into normal scope and to keep balance. Concentration of calcium and phosphorus in blood is regulated within the range that can help the function of neural muscle or bone minerals. This regulation increases the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in small intestine by 1,25(OH)2D.If intake of vitamin D is insufficient, there is any disturbing factor in absorbing fat, its generation in winter seasons is insufficient, the level of 25(OH)D3 becomes lower and the level of 1,25(OH)2D3 and calcium in blood lower too. At that moment, the concentration of parathyroid glans hormone is increased and its increase increases flow-out of minerals in bone which leads to loss of bone minerals. Therefore, the main action of 1,25(OH)2D acts for small intestine and bones to make the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in meal efficient. It regulates blood serum calcium level to proper range for cell activation. When calcium is insufficient, it moves calcium and phosphorus stored in the bone to control equlibrillium level.

Vitamin D

Keeping of
calcium function

Vitamin D

Vitamin D helps keep
the function of calcium
Vitamin D

To keep the function of joint of nerve and
muscle, calcium is to be supplied sufficiently
Vitamin D

Vitamin D is necessary to absorb
calcium and phosphate and to use them
Vitamin D

To make calcium phosphate,
it regulates the use of calcium and phosphorus
Vitamin D

Vitamin D is necessary to
form and keep bone.

of vitamin D

If vitamin D is deficient, concentration of calcium and phosphate in blood becomes low. Calcification is not done sufficiently or demineralization happens in bone. Therefore skeleton becomes weak and bent as it does not endure pressure. It is called rickets when it is shown in growing kids. Rickets shown in adult is called osteomalacia. Its feature is that ossification of newly made bone is weak. Hip, vertebra, etc can be easily broken. At the moment, vitamin D metabolism or calcium absorption is lowered leading to hypocalcemia accompanied. Secondary hypothyroidism and severe bone loss might be caused. The aged and office people are easy to be deficient in vitamin D if they take sufficient vitamin D. Because they have less opportunity to expose to sun light and lowered kidney function is not efficient for activation.

Vitamin e

Function of
vitamin E

vitamin E

Major function of vitamin E is to prevent from
peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acid that
composes cell membrane through
anti-oxidative activity.
vitamin E

It acts as oxidizing/reducing agent by
being oxidized and preventing other matters
from being oxidized. It takes a role to
protect other molecular or part of cell
from attack of oxidizing agent.
vitamin E

Polyunsaturated fatty acid that composes
cell membrane is easily oxidated by free radical
made from cell. As alpha tocopherol stops
this oxidation process, and removes
free radical, it can protect cell membrane
from oxidative damage.
vitamin E

If vitamin E is insufficient, unsaturated
fatty acid existed in cell membrane is
easily oxidized and cell is damaged.
Even hemolysis of erythrocyte or
damage of muscle and neural
cell can be made.

of vitamin E

Deficiency of vitamin E differs from animals. Representative symptoms are impotent, muscular dystrophy, neural disease, anemia, and hepatic necrosis. However, deficiency of vitamin E in human is hardly shown. It means that sufficient vitamin E is being eaten through daily meal to prevent from deficiency. Except that α-TTP is insufficient in genetically, PEM (Protein Energy Malnutrition) or severe malabsorption, vitamin E deficiency is not shown well. Once vitamin E is deficient due to any reason, severe neural damage is shown.

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